This study analyzed the ability of water districts to meet mandatory urban water conservation targets, which are a common policy response to drought. To provide useful decision support for climate adaptation policy and planning, it is important to understand the regionally-specific character-istics of the energy-water nexus, and the history of the current water and energy supply systems serving an area. Concentrated Thermal Solar Power and the Value of Water for Electricity 7. Findings expand the understanding of residential demand in at least three salient ways: first, by documenting that pricing and outdoor water restriction policies interact with each other ensuring that total water savings are not additive of each program operating independently; second, by showing that the effectiveness of pricing and restrictions policies varies among different classes of customers i. The increased regional temperature, changes in snowpack and precipitation, and increased water stresses from drought can reduce ecosystem services and affect the water and energy nexus and agricultural food production, as well as fish and wildlife habitats in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Delta and Central Valley watersheds. Historical and Sociopolitical Context of the Western Watersheds Movement, Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 35 3 :493-503 1999. Water and energy are two sides of the same coin: the production of oil, gas, and electricity requires vast amounts of water; the transport and production of drinking water uses enormous amounts of energy.
The New Generation of Biofuels Ronald C. Managing Produced Water from Coalbed Methane Production Lawrence J. For the 20 regions and 4 countries surveyed including regions with low to extremely high water risks that are geographically located in Africa, Australia, Asia, Europe, and North America , their energy intensities were positively related to the water risks. The studies of the water footprint associated with energy use combined with the future risks of conflicts between electricity production and water availability provided valuable insight on these water use trends in California Kenney and Wilkinson 2011; Fulton and Cooley 2015; Fulton et al. The focus is the American West, but many of the lessons are global in their applicability. It works for any water source and any system anywhere.
Integrated Planning: Transmission, Generation and Water in the Western States Tom Iseman and Alex Schroeder 16. Concentrated Thermal Solar Power and the Value of Water for Electricity Cynthia L. The Vital Role of Electrical Energy for Arizona Water Services Joseph H. Water - Energy Integration in California Frances Spivy-Weber Index Customer Reviews. The final section looks at the way forward, providing cases and recommendations for better, more efficient linkages in the water-energy nexus. The study represents an original contribution for the identification of policies and managerial implications in the context of the energy sector, serving as a practical guide.
We also characterized the influence of water risks on the water-energy nexus, including baseline water stress a water quantity indicator and return flow ratio a water quality indicator. How might this wicked problem be resolved such that we simultaneously have more water for streams ecological health and growing populations, fewer fish passage obstructions, improved economic viability for working rural landscapes, more carbon free energy, adequate water quality, and improved reliability in water delivery for all water rights holders, while respecting and keeping existing water rights intact? The California Water Action Plan addresses these great challenges for the ecosystem services by establishing objectives of aggressive ecosystem restoration and other steps for environmental benefits California Water Action Plan 2014. This analysis offers insights into institutional design and suggests that local biophysical and economic conditions shape responses in systematic ways that should be addressed by public policy responses to drought. This paper provided an overview of research background, developed a conceptual framework to bridge these knowledge gaps, summarized California case studies for practices in cross sector ecosystem services, and identified future research needs. The final section looks at the way forward, providing cases and recommendations for better, more efficient linkages in the water-energy nexus. The New Generation of Biofuels Ronald C.
The focus is the American West, but many of the lessons are global in their applicability. The Note suggests that the State Water Resources Control Board rely on external procedural mechanisms such as the federal Endangered Species Act as an informational resource. The methodology also sheds new light on accepted views. Adaptive Management as a Tool for Negotiating the Water - Energy Nexus Melinda Harm Benson 14. Indeed, the book shows, thoughtfully designed new technologies and approaches can help restore damaged environments and provide a range of benefits. Additional statistics include the possible need to top-up both amount and frequency of water required to maintain canal surface levels or whether local natural rain water is adequate to replace evaporation and loss. Students and researchers in economics, public policy, environmental studies and law along with planners and policymakers will find this accessible and very current volume invaluable.
Other analyses have focused on the consumption of energy by the water sector throughout a chain of functions including extraction, transport, delivery, pre-and post-use treatment, and user applications Wilkinson 2000;Cohen et al. The importance of the interdependence between water and energy, also known as the water-energy nexus, is well recognized. The final section looks at the way forward, providing cases and recommendations for better, more efficient linkages in the water-energy nexus. But now, energy use and climate implications have a major effect on how we design both water and energy systems. The nexus between water and energy raises a set of public policy questions that go far beyond water and energy. Published Books Kenney, Douglas S.
A large variation in average energy intensity values was also estimated from ground water and federal, state, and local water supplies both within each hydrological region and among the ten hydrological regions in California. With growing population and changing climate, water demands in the region are increasing, thus desalination becomes an effective option to supplement limiting freshwater resources. The need for additional power generation units to satisfy consumer demands, and hence more cooling capacities, creates a problem for utilities. Keywords Ecosystem services Ecosystem Climate change Water Energy Food and environments Agricultural practices Ecosystem processes Sustainable natural resource Integrated resource management California Interdisciplinary research. This Note explores how California's State Water Resources Control Board can play a more proactive role in water management by using the public trust doctrine to resolve water conflicts and better prepare California's water systems for climate change. Energy Requirements for Water Supply in Utah Sarah G. Nexus thinking presents itself as a radically new approach to integrated governance in response to interconnected socio-environmental challenges and constraints.
Such a system has proven successful in South Florida. However, only 50% of urban water districts analyzed in this study reached their individual conservation target, which offers an opportunity to evaluate the factors associated with successful water use reduction. Using renewables as an energy source for desalination has the potential to make it less costly and more sustainable. Economic vitality and management of scarce and precious resources are at stake. The Vital Role of Electrical Energy for Arizona Water Services 13. Water-Energy Interdependencies and the Central Arizona Project Susanna Eden, Christopher A.
Managing Produced Water from Coalbed Methane Production Lawrence J. Integrated Planning: Transmission, Generation and Water in the Western States Tom Iseman and Alex Schroeder 16. Regulatory and user-based groundwater management initiatives indicate growing awareness of aquifer depletion; however, the long-term outlook points to continued depletion. Managing Produced Water from Coalbed Methane Production 6. Genskow , Building State-Local Watershed Partnerships, River Voices, 11 2 :1, 4-9 2000. Water—Energy Interdependencies and the Central Arizona Project 9.
Predictably, during the summer season in hot, semi-desert and desert areas, air-cooling would not prove very efficient. During California's recent record-breaking drought, a 25% state-wide use reduction objective was set and met. So far, substantive research on the resource nexus has focussed disproportionately on the national or state level: for example Spain Malik, 2002 , the Middle East and North Africa Damerau et al. Energy production is responsible for 61. This mainly reflected the major influence of source water accessibility on the nexus, particularly for regions requiring energy-intensive imported or groundwater supplies, or desalination. After a broad, stage-setting introductory section, The Water - Energy Nexus in the American West looks first at the use of water for energy production and then follows with chapters on the role of energy in water projects.