Converting persia religion and power in the safavid empire. Safavid conversion of Iran from Sunnism to Shiism 2019-02-21

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Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires (1400

converting persia religion and power in the safavid empire

This period, however, attests to the tacit alliance between the 'Amili clerics and the Qizilbash amirs and the manner in which the former co- opted and reshaped elements of 'extremism' to widen their appeal to the public and increase their influence. Domestic Contests: The Persian Aristocracy, the Qizilbash and the 'Amili Jurists The military Qizilbash figured in the ranks of the Safavid civil administration, and they were appointed at times to the treasury or posts in the senior civil service such as the chancellery, despite the fact that Persian professionals and bureaucrats controlled its operation. Mir Damad was among the first Safavid thinkers to appropriate the philosophical ideas of Shihab al-Din Yahya Suhravardi d. Hilal al-Karaki, known as al-Minshar d. The Shah granted him that permission but denied it to Baha'i, possibly to force Husayn to return or because he envisaged in Baha'i the succeeding religious guide for the city of Herat.

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Converting Persia : religion and power in the Safavid Empire (eBook, 2004) [browsertap.com]

converting persia religion and power in the safavid empire

The Shah was well acquainted with Baha'i for, during the former's youth in Herat, he sat through the Friday sermons of Baha'i's father, and was instructed by him in Shi'ite doctrine. Apparently, after AbuT-Ala' and Yahya disagreed on a question The Muj tali ids Navigate the Sovereign's World 47 relating to oration, they decided to consult Ahmad al-Qummi. Yet, the Aleppine The Mnjtahids Navigate the Sovereign's World 35 scholar pointed to a leading thirteenth-century Shi'ite scholar, al-Muhaqqiq al- Hilli, who had endorsed the cursing of the first two Caliphs. I have tried to delineate some of these shifts and to account for several competing versions of 'Shi'ism' under the early Safavids. Rosemary Stanfield Johnson convincingly argued that Shah Tahmasb considered the opinion of the Sunnite aristocrats of Qazvin when furnishing his state policies. Rula Abisaab explains how and why this specific brand of Shi'ism - urban and legally-based - was brought to the region by leading Arab 'Ulama from Ottoman Syria, and changed the face of the region till this day.

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Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires (1400

converting persia religion and power in the safavid empire

Al-Qatifi also harbored a personal disaffection toward al-Karaki that went beyond disagreement on theological questions. Husayn convinced the Shah that Friday prayer was simply a religious necessity, symbolizing Islamic temporal sovereignty. Ha'iri at Majlis Library, and Vali Nasr. Al-Karaki also forged important ties with Persian families through inter- marriage; at least two of his daughters married into the Astarabadi family 87 Among the Astarabadis, al-Karaki had friends, students and followers in juridical method. It is misleading to assume, however, that Mir Husayn's position is simply a formulation of a well-established practice among Shi'ites. It is also clear that the upper-class Qizilbash started to covet an 'orthodox' Islamic creed. Tutfullah was convinced that the term imam 'adl, taken in the context of the original Tradition, does not refer to the infallible Imam.

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Converting Persia Religion and Power in the Safavid Empire : Rula Jurdi Abisaab : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming : Internet Archive

converting persia religion and power in the safavid empire

He prohibited the use of clothes, gold, silver and other items which 'infidels' make or work with because they were 'impure'. Shah 'Abbas and the Muslim-Christian Polemics of Ahmad 'Alavi Amili kinship, juridical training and philosophical pursuits were but three of the major features that Ahmad b. Another Persian, Yar Ahmad Khuzani, better known as Najm-i Thani, succeeded Najm al-Din and simultaneously assumed both the military and civil functions of his offices. Sanctified by the Safavid sovereigns and coveted by Qizilbash and Persian elements alike, the public cursing of Sunnism was an effective tool for setting sharper boundaries between Sunnism and Shi'ism. The clerical literature reflects the soevereign's interest in counteracting Ottoman threats, confronting Portuguese claims to vital resources, regulating the socio-economic relations among Muslims and Christians and redrawing the political map and class boundaries in Isfahan. State instigated cursing was less an expression of sectarian hostilities, than a function of political conflict.

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Converting Persia: Religion and Power in the Safavid Empire

converting persia religion and power in the safavid empire

It seems that Husayn manipulated the Shah's vulnerability to promote his views about the administration of sacred law in the empire. Converting Persia is vital reading for anthropologists, historians and scholars of religion, and any interested in Safavid Persia, in Shi'ism, and in the wider history of the Middle East. Their followers argued that they constituted the 'Sunna' the right path supported by the majority of the Muslim community. Thousands of Georgian and Armenian prisoners were also moved to the capital and integrated into the ghulams of his empire. Popular millenarian and heterodox leanings, which fell outside the parameters of the shari'a, were rejected by both Mir Damad and Baha'i. He first expounded then denounced the doctrines of the incarnation of God hulul in the bodies of Gnostics {'arifs , the belief that God is the soul of existence and that every existing being is God. As Shams al-Din prayed, God illuminated his way and turned the snow into bread loafs in less than an hour! Just as important at the time was a conscious and vivid process of Persianization both at the state level and in society.

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Converting Persia: Religion and Power in the Safavid Empire by Rula Jurdi Abisaab

converting persia religion and power in the safavid empire

Overall, 20,000 'non-Muslims were taken captive and embraced Islam in qezelbash custody'. The Safavids drama- tized and 'invented' a number of Shi'ite rituals that emphasized differences rather 34 Converting Persia than similarities between Sunnism and Shi'ism. The Shah noted that these communities: Were not natives of the region and some of their sentiments are suspect so they shouldn't be placed in these frontier areas. In comparison, a rigorous and formal creed of Shi'ism furnished by jurists and clerics could have a more authoritative position. There is no decisive evidence that the Shah wanted a full readmission of Sunnism into Persia.

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Converting Persia Religion and Power in the Safavid Empire : Rula Jurdi Abisaab : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming : Internet Archive

converting persia religion and power in the safavid empire

Baha'i's Bahr al-Hisab, his largest arithmetical book and its summary, Khulasat al-Hisab, became authoritative textbooks. A few aligned themselves with 'Amili legalism in an attempt to confirm their commitment and defense of Twelver Shi'ism as the empire's foundation and religious identity. Protesting to the Shah, Baha'i wrote: From whose imaginary existence, a hundred disgrace befalls me, You know not my worth, so sell me not for little. Afterthoughts Indeed, the clerics strove to expunge heterodoxy and Sufism from Twelver Shi'ite practices but, interestingly, they also nurtured some of the popular ghuluww practices that overlapped with Qizilbash religious background, such as anti-Sunnite ritual cursing and the beating ritual-confession. Internally and externally, the Safavids benefited from the maintenance of a rejectionist, militant, dramatized approach toward Sunnism. For the most part, however, Shi'ites viewed the rule of Sunnite caliphs and sultans as a usurpation of the rights of their Imams, the descendants of 'Ali and Fatima. He taught by day, carried wood for his family on his donkey at night and occasionally tended his vineyard.

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Full text of Persia Religion and Power in the Safavid

converting persia religion and power in the safavid empire

Through these mediums, Suhravardi emphasized the links and interconnection between the upper sources of authority and the lower levels of human-social existence. Because opium was illegal the British grew it in India and sold it in China. By understanding the dynamic and multilayered notions of 'tradition', as changing rather than static, I cautioned myself against self- descriptions of 'tradition-based' juridical concepts and rulings advanced by Safavid Introduction 3 theologians. Infuriated but cautious, the Shah dismissed the subject lest it incur the support of several courtiers. Safavid sovereigns refrained from taking drastic political measures against powerful Qizilbash leaders during their early reign or without building solid counter-alliances with one or more Qizilbash faction. But when the need arose there were ways to work around such laws as Baha'i's rulings, discussed in the coming section, showed. Isma'il I's son and successor Shah Tahmasb profoundly trusted the sayyids descendants from the house of the Prophet , whose interests he consistently promoted through the office of sadr.

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Converting Persia : religion and power in the Safavid Empire /

converting persia religion and power in the safavid empire

At each stage of consciousness and intelligibility, exists a 'caliph' or ruler khalifa. Shi'ites consider the twelfth Imam to be the Mahdi Messiah and await his return to establish the legitimate Shi'ite government. Curiously, the futuvvat milieu also became a bedrock for devotional folk Shi'ism as well as Sunnite ahl al-bayt pietistic attitudes. Al-Karaki's life and other 'Amilis' experiences in general do not support the idea that they stood ethnically apart from Persian society or were a non-assimilative group. It is also possible that the Shah feared that the Ottomans were manipulating this question to undermine the affinity between him and Christian Safavid population, particularly the Armenian merchants of Julf a. In the process, they changed as well. Persia adopted Shi'ism as its official religion.

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